Jacques Maritain says in his Art and Scholasticism that artists, as makers of beauty, are forever torn between the the philosopher's speculative realm and the practicality of the tradesman. One follows disinterested truth while the other, the production of good work. However if paradox can be accepted, a painter can potentially stand at the threshold and look both ways.
Modern art should be given free scope in the due and reverent service of the church and the sacred rites, provided that they preserve a correct balance between styles tending neither to extreme realism nor to excessive 'symbolism,'...*
- Pope Pius XII, Mediator Dei
Pope Benedict XVI, in Spirit of the Liturgy, identifies three traditions of art employed in the Sacred Liturgy: the Iconographic, Gothic and Baroque. While premising the same foundation, the regula fidei, and end, Dei glorificatio, their means differ.** This distinction of means might be seen under two aspects, the theological and philosophical.
The rarified vision of the Iconographic presents the events of Sacred History and the communion of saints, sub specie aeterna, from an eschatological view. The saints, no longer vacillating in the passions of life, are seen complete and at rest, interceding from the glory of Heaven for those on Earth. The images are hence windows into heaven or Sacred History where one can come and still and contemplate the mysterium fidei.
The Gothic and especially the Baroque, rather than an abstracted and objective view, present a mode of representation which is grounded in the particulars of the hic et nunc, here and now of life. The flat, ambient lighting of the Iconographic begins to cede to the more familiar light of the world even to the point of fracture, witnessed in the later Baroque Caravaggisti. Giotto's frescos begin to infuse a new wind of action and emotion. There is a move towards greater Naturalism as St Thomas articulates, "since only through sensible things can we come to know intelligible ones"*** Rather than an objective theological view, a subjective stance develops, beginning in the varities of this life and moving to the certainties of the supermundane.
This tension has characterized much of the theological speculation within the Church. It is the relation of the transcendent to the imminent. Indeed the disparity of these two outlooks is almost insurmountable, if it not for the greatest mystery, magnum mysterium, Verbum Dei incarnatum, the Word of God made flesh. It is in the person of Christ that the transcendence of God is made knowable to man in the particularities of this life.
A shift is also seen in the philosophical framework. While the essential material of Theology and art did not change, the language and structure used to speak of them did. Thus in this period of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the Platonism and Neo-Platonism which influenced the Early Church gradually cedes to the Aristotelianism which gave a new significance to the particularities of Nature. Subjects which might have been discussed in terms of imperfect manifestations of pure Forms, began to be discussed in hierarchies of genus and species, possessing essential and accidental attributes and having various levels of perfection qua active and potential qualities. Through the history of the Church, a spectrum of orthodox or better orthoprax, artistic modes has developed. Just as St Thomas posits a simultaneity of meanings in Sacred Scripture,**** so too these various modalities can overlap rather than compete.
The body of work presented here, tries to continue an organic development of the late Gothic schools. Here the essential narrative and allegorical elements established by the Iconographic traditions meet an increasing Naturalistic appetite. The gilded backgrounds indicative of God's grace and glory sometimes cedes to the expanse of the created world and sometimes the Naturalistic precision of architecture is pushed back into symbolic form. It is in this potent meeting of schools rather than opposition that the work is formed.
* Pope Pius XII, Mediator Dei, 195. «Recentes imagines ac formae, ad materiam aptiores, ex qua hodie conficiuntur, non sunt generali modo atque ex praeiudicata opinione spernendae ac reiciendae; sed rationibus illis aequabiliter ac recte compositis, quae neque ad nudam contendant rerum imitationem, nec ad nimium « symbolismum », quem vocant, ac necessitatibus potius spectatis christianae communitatis, quam peculiari artificum iudicio atque ingenio cuiusque suo, oportet omnino eam nostrorum temporum artem liberum habere campum, quae sacris aedibus sacrisque ritibus debita reverentia debitoque honore inserviat;,...»
** The scholasticulus would say that they posses the same material cause, regula fidei, and final cause, Dei glorificatio, but have differing formal causes.
*** St Thomas Aquinas, ST I, Q 50, a 3, ad 3. «quia ad cognoscendum intelligibilia non possumus pervenire nisi per sensibilia»
**** St Thomas Aquinas, ST I, Q 1, a 9-10.
Wonder over the great breadth of Creation has given birth to bestiaries, herbaries, lapidaries and even the fantastic marginalia of Medieval texts. Gilding fills the skies of the miniatures, representative of God's grace and presence, just as the millefluer and diapering symbolically attest to the fecundity of His Creation. The vastness of created things were catalogued for their essential goodness and their natures pondered for natural as well as allegorical knowledge. For as the beginning of Genesis attest, God Himself judges the goodness of His labors.
The great canticle of the Sunday office of Lauds, the litany of all creation, rises like the swelling of the sea in the praise of God:
Benedícite, ómnia ópera Dómini, Dómino: * laudáte et superexaltáte eum in sǽcula.
Benedícite, Ángeli Dómini, Dómino: * benedícite, cæli, Dómino.
Benedícite, aquæ omnes, quæ super cælos sunt, Dómino: * benedícite, omnes virtútes Dómini, Dómino.
Benedícite, sol et luna, Dómino: * benedícite, stellæ cæli, Dómino.
Benedícite, omnis imber et ros, Dómino: * benedícite, omnes spíritus Dei, Dómino.
Benedícite, ignis et æstus, Dómino: * benedícite, frigus et æstus, Dómino.
Benedícite, rores et pruína, Dómino: * benedícite, gelu et frigus, Dómino.
Benedícite, glácies et nives, Dómino: * benedícite, noctes et dies, Dómino.
Benedícite, lux et ténebræ, Dómino: * benedícite, fúlgura et nubes, Dómino.
Benedícat terra Dóminum: * laudet et superexáltet eum in sǽcula.
Benedícite, montes et colles, Dómino: * benedícite, univérsa germinántia in terra, Dómino.
Benedícite, fontes, Dómino: * benedícite, mária et flúmina, Dómino.
Benedícite, cete, et ómnia, quæ movéntur in aquis, Dómino: * benedícite, omnes vólucres cæli, Dómino.
Benedícite, omnes béstiæ et pécora, Dómino: * benedícite, fílii hóminum, Dómino.
Benedícat Israël Dóminum: * laudet et superexáltet eum in sǽcula.
Benedícite, sacerdótes Dómini, Dómino: * benedícite, servi Dómini, Dómino.
Benedícite, spíritus, et ánimæ iustórum, Dómino: * benedícite, sancti, et húmiles corde, Dómino.
Benedícite, Ananía, Azaría, Mísaël, Dómino: * laudáte et superexaltáte eum in sǽcula.
Benedicámus Patrem et Fílium cum Sancto Spíritu: * laudémus et superexaltémus eum in sǽcula.
Benedíctus es, Dómine, in firmaménto cæli: * et laudábilis, et gloriósus, et superexaltátus in sǽcula.
All ye works of the Lord, bless the Lord: * praise and exalt him above all for ever.
O ye angels of the Lord, bless the Lord: * O ye heavens, bless the Lord:
O all ye waters that are above the heavens, bless the Lord: * O all ye powers of the Lord, bless the Lord.
O ye sun and moon, bless the Lord: * O ye stars of heaven, bless the Lord.
O every shower and dew, bless ye the Lord: * O all ye spirits of God, bless the Lord.
O ye fire and heat, bless the Lord: * O ye cold and heat, bless the Lord.
O ye dews and hoar frosts, bless the Lord: * O ye frost and cold, bless the Lord.
O ye ice and snow, bless the Lord: * O ye nights and days, bless the Lord.
O ye light and darkness, bless the Lord: * O ye lightnings and clouds, bless the Lord.
O let the earth bless the Lord: * let it praise and exalt him above all for ever.
O ye mountains and hills, bless the Lord: * O all ye things that spring up in the earth, bless the Lord.
O ye fountains, bless the Lord: * O ye seas and rivers, bless the Lord.
O ye whales, and all that move in the waters, bless the Lord: * O all ye fowls of the air, bless the Lord.
O all ye beasts and cattle, bless the Lord: * O ye sons of men, bless the Lord.
O let Israel bless the Lord: * let them praise and exalt him above all for ever.
O ye priests of the Lord, bless the Lord: * O ye servants of the Lord, bless the Lord.
O ye spirits and souls of the just, bless the Lord: * O ye holy and humble of heart, bless the Lord.
O Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, bless ye the Lord: * praise and exalt him above all for ever.
Let us bless the Father and the Son, with the Holy Ghost; * let us praise and exalt him above all for ever.
Blessed art thou, O Lord, in the firmament of heaven: * and worthy of praise, and glorious for ever.